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Разведение коровРазведение крупного рогатого скота Уход за коровами, кормление коров,  откорм телят, доение коров

Порода Коров Тагильская
Тагильские коровы, Tagil Cattle, Tagil Сows

Породы крупного рогатого скота. Породы коров.

Породы Коров (Породы КРС)

 Порода Коров Тагильская, Тагильские коровы, Tagil Cattle, Tagil Сows

Тагильская порода коров, относится к молочному направлению продуктивности. Эта порода коров, была выведена в Нижнем Тагиле на Урале в первой половине девятнадцатого века. Формировалась Тагильская порода коров, из местного примитивного уральского скота путем его сложного воспроизводительного скрещивания с коровами Голландской и Холмогорской пород. В дальнейшем помесей разводили в себе и периодически улучшали импортными быками Голландской породы коров.

Формированию Тагильской породы коров, способствовали благоприятные кормовые и экономические условия и, в частно­сти, богатые луга по берегам рек, а также лесные угодья, служившие хорошим источником пастбищного корма и высококачественного сена.

 

Порода Коров Тагильская, Тагильские коровы, Tagil Cattle, Tagil Сows

По экстерьеру Тагильская порода коров, неоднородная - многие животные сходны в этом отношении с Голландскими коровами, часть их сохраняет признаки, свойственные местному скоту, часть занимает промежуточное положение между исходными породами. В экстерьере Тагильских коров встречаются свислость зада, узкозадость, неправильная постановка задних конечностей. Костяк и мускулатура у животных развиты умеренно. Масть тагильского скота разнообразная: черно-пестрая, черная, красно-пестрая, красная и др.

Продуктивность коров Тагильской породы, в среднем равна - 3000 кг, а средняя жирность молока - 4,0%. Однако колебания удоев довольно значительны; зависят они от уровня племенной работы в хозяйствах и кормления скота. В лучших хозяй­ствах от коров надаивают за год от - 3500 до 4800 кг. молока при содержании в нем в среднем - 4,08% жира. Удои рекордисток достигают - 6000-9000 кг и более (корова Марта). Характерно, что большие годовые удои коров сочетаются с высоким содержанием жира в молоке.

Порода Коров Тагильская, Тагильские коровы, Tagil Cattle, Tagil Сows

 

Вес коров Тагильской породы в массе -400—500 кг, в лучших хозяйствах Свердловской области - 550 и даже - 600 кг. Средний вес Тагильских быков составляет - 850 кг, максимальный - 1200 кг. Убойный выход у коров равен обычно - 50%, у бычков после откорма этот показатель доходит до - 56%.

Племенная работа с Тагильской породой направлена на увеличение молочности, живого веса, скороспелости, а также устранение экстерьерных недостатков.

Совершенствуется Тагильский КРС путем чистопородного разведения с использованием выдающихся по продуктивности и жирномолочности производителей, относящихся главным образом к 13 линиям.

Порода Коров Тагильская, Тагильские коровы, Tagil Cattle, Tagil Сows

Tagil Cattle (Tagilskaya)

The breed was formed in the Central Urals. The centre of its breeding is Nizhny Tagil and the adjacent districts of Sverdlovsk region. The developing steel and other industries, accompanied by the population growth and higher demand for food, encouraged the improvement of animal husbandry in the Urals. Early in the 18th century, the local people began to breed cattle, selecting for use the best yielding cows with high butterfat content of milk and the bulls by the production of their mothers. Good grasslands and keeping the cows outdoors even in cold weather (-20 to -30 C) assisted in the creation of a valuable dairy breed, hardy and adapted to the severe climate of the Urals. Until 1862 Kholmogory sires were used to upgrade the local cattle. For the two decades that followed no systematic improvement measures were undertaken. After 1882 a few Yaroslavl bulls were used for crossing, but they had little effect.

Early in this century the Tagil cattle began to be crossed with the Dutch breed. This resulted in a better constitution and higher milk yield but caused a decrease in butterfat content. According to some reports, Swiss Brown and Tyrolean cattle were imported in small numbers but their effect was not great. Overall, only two breeds, namely Kholmogory and Dutch, had an improving effect on the Tagil cattle. The popularity of the Tagil breed increased after the cattle exhibition in Nizhny Tagil in 1905 at which the average milk yield of the cows exhibited was 2931 kg and the butterfat content was 4.83%. Thereafter Tagil cattle were in great demand and they were exported in great numbers to the neighbouring districts of west Siberia, to east Siberia and even to Kamchatka.

 

During the following decade the Tagil cattle were intensively mated to the Dutch breed which resulted in a considerable decrease in the butterfat content of their milk. To preserve a valuable property of the Tagil cattle, that is the high butterfat content, the Dutch sires were replaced by purebred or crossbred Tagil bulls.

Since 1917 the improvement of Tagil cattle has been carried out by the husbandry association set up in Nizhny Tagil; since 1933 this work was done by the State breeding station, and later it was performed at breeding stations.

In 1930 the Tagil breed was officially approved as planned breed for improving cattle in some regions of the Urals and Siberia. In 1931 the first volume of the National Herdbook was published. Late in the 1930s experiments were undertaken at some state farms to cross the Tagil cattle with the East Friesian. The Tagil-East Friesian cattle group was formed; it was noted for high milk production and high butterfat content. The population of Tagil-East-Friesian cattle in the vicinity of Sverdlovsk later became a part of the Black Pied breed.

The colour of the animals is diverse; nevertheless black and black-and-white predominate (47-48%); red and red-and-white are also common.

Tagil cattle are subdivided into three types: Tagil-Dutch, mainly of black-and-white colour; Starotagil (old Tagil) with a somewhat coarse and short deep head showing the influence of Tyrolean and Swiss Brown cattle in the past; the standard type of the second half of the last century, uninfluenced by Dutch cattle, with prevailing red-and-white colour.

The animals of the first type have a lighter skeleton, long head, long body, wide hindquarters, normally shaped udder, correctly set legs. The standard type animals are characterized by fairly heavy and long head and neck, pointed withers, not very deep chest but with a considerable dewlap, level back, capacious belly, wide, long and often sloping rump with a roof-like shape, high tail head, strong medium-long legs. The hind legs are frequently bowed or sickle-hocked. The udder is fairly large, with a good excess of skin. The teats differ in size.

The measurements of the cows (in cm) are as follows: withers height 129.5, chest depth 70.9, oblique body length 158.3, heart girth 187.5, cannon bone girth 19.2 (the National Herdbook, volume 12, 1980).

The constitution of the animals is strong and conformation is compact. The size of the animals is medium. The live weight of newborn calves is 28-32 kg; at the age of 6 months they weigh 160-190 kg. The live weight of cows averages 460-500 kg; that of mature cows registered in Volume 12 of the National Herdbook (1980) is 552 kg (going up to 705 kg). The average live weight of bulls older than 3 years is 836-942 kg. The largest animals reach the weight of 1 000-1 120 kg.

The beef qualities of the Tagil breed are considered to be satisfactory. The dressing percentage of yearling steers is 54; at the age of 17 months it is 58%. Feed conversion is 5.6-7.2 feed units per kg live-weight gain.

The milk yield of cows on the best commercial farms is in the region of 3000 kg; in pedigree herds it reaches 4500-5000 kg. The average milk yield of the cows registered in Volume 12 of the National Herdbook was 3989 kg, with 4.29% fat. The most productive cows of the Tagil breed produce 7323-7805 kg of milk in 305 days with 4.12-4.31% fat.

The record holder of the breed, cow Amazonka 474 is kept at Savinski state farm in Perm district. She produced in 305 days of the 6th lacation 8243 kg of milk with 4.36% fat. Her production per 100 kg of live weight was 1540 kg of milk. In 10 lactations she yielded over 60 000 kg of milk. Cow Lyustra 367 of the same farm produced, in 305 days of the 4th lactation, 7252 kg of milk with 4.31% fat, or 1250 kg of milk per 100 kg of live weight. Cow Rodinka 351 produced in the 5th lactation 10 222 kg of milk with 3.97% fat; Marta 46: 8th lactation, 9367 kg of milk, 4.10% fat; Dorogaya: 6th lactation, 9040 kg, 4.15% fat.

In butterfat content the Tagil cows are second only to the Gorbatov Red breed. The average butterfat content is 4.0-4.2% and some cows have 5.0-5.4%. The herds with the highest butterfat content are on farms of Perm and Sverdlovsk regions, where cows with butterfat content of over 4.0% account for 18-25% of the herd. The protein content is 3.3-3.6%. At the breeding farm of Tagil cattle at Trifanovskoe breeding centre of the Ural Agricultural Research Institute in Sverdlovsk region 1019 cows produced in 1983 an average of 4264 kg of milk and 167 kg of milk fat.

Due to the shape and function of the udder the Tagil cows are suitable for machine milking: udder index varies from 40.7 to 45.2%. At the farms of the service zone of Kamyshlov state breeding station 31% of the cows have a tub-shaped, 59% have a cup-shaped, and only 10% have a spherical udder. The speed of milk flow is 1.22-1.67 kg per minute.

These commercial properties and biological features of Tagil cattle allow them to be considered one of the best national breeds.

Tagil cattle are distributed in Sverdlovsk (46%), Perm (36%), Kurgan (5.8%), Chelyabinsk (4%) and Tyumen (0.2%) regions and in the Udmurt ASSR (8%). The total number has decreased by 13% during the last decade and now stands at 599 000.

The most valuable features of Tagil cattle are the high butterfat content of their milk, high milk production, good beef qualities, complete adaptation to the specific natural and economic conditions of the Ural region and resistance to disease.

The cattle breeding plan envisages the growth of Tagil cattle numbers and their improvement by intra-breed selection and by introduction of the blood of related breeds to improve conformation, to increase milk production and adaptability to industrial technology.

Породы крупного рогатого скота. Породы коров.

Молочные породы Коров

Айрширская порода коров
Бурая Латвийская порода коров
Голландская порода коров
Голштинская порода коров
Джерсейская порода коров
Истобенская порода коров
Красная датская порода коров
Красная степная порода коров
Красно-пестрая порода коров
Суксунская порода коров
Тагильская порода коров
Холмогорская порода коров
Черно - пестрая порода коров
Ярославская порода коров

Комбинированные (Молочно-Мясные) Породы Коров

Бестужевская порода коров
Бурая швицкая порода коров
Костромская порода коров

Красная горбатовская порода
Симментальская порода коров

Сычевская порода коров

Мясные породы скота

Абердин-Ангусская порода коров
Аквитанская порода коров
Аулиекольская порода коров
Бельгийская голубая порода коров
Порода коров Браман
Галловейская порода коров
Герефордская порода коров
Девонская порода коров
Казахская белоголовая порода коров
Калмыцкая порода коров
Кианская порода коров
Порода коров Лимузин
Порода коров Обрак
Русская комолая порода коров
Порода коров Салерс
Порода коров Cанта - гертруда
Порода коров Шароле
Шортгорнская порода коров

Разведение коровРазведение крупного рогатого скота Уход за коровами, кормление коров,  откорм телят, доение коров

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