Лакомб, это порода свиней мясного типа, выведена в Канаде, а в Россию была завезена в 1964 году. Порода свиней Лакомб, одна из известнейших в Канаде. Порода Лакомб получена в результате многопородного скрещивания свиней Ландрас, Беркширской и других пород, ее отличает высокая скороспелость (140-165 дней), крепкая конституция, хорошие показатели по оплате корма привесом (затраты на 1 кг составляют 3,6-4 кормовые единицы).
У свиней Лакомб спокойный нрав, крепкая конституция. Свиньи данной породы среднего размера, с удлинённым туловищем, белые, с большими свисающими ушами. Ноги у Лакомбов короткие, а сама конституция довольно мясная. Порода была выведена специально и отличается хорошим уровнем прироста, особенно свиноматки. Много внимания было уделено многоплодию, весу при отъёме, темпу роста, эффективности конверсии корма, качеству туши и физическому здоровью. Поэтому свиноматки и хряки Лакомб, отличаются хорошей плодовитостью, хорошо переносят индивидуальное содержание и приносят поросят, которые обладают хорошими мясными качествами. Молодняк имеет хороший прирост.
Хряков Лакомб, целесообразно использовать для промышленного скрещивания в качестве заключительной породы при гибридизации.
К особенностям породы относятся спокойное поведение, однородность туш, многоплодие, резистентность к риниту и хорошие откормочные качества. Порода преимущественно распространена в Канаде и некоторых других странах мира. В России данную породу разводят в Новосибирской и других областях.
The Lacombe breed is the fifth ranking breed of swine
in Canada; 1,743 were registered in 1981, of which 648 were boars and
1,095 were females.
The breed is medium sized, white, has large drooping ears, is long bodied, rather short of leg, and quite meaty in conformation. The breed has been especially selected and noted for its rapidity of gain and docility, especially the sows. There has been much attention paid to litter size, weaning weight, growth rate, efficiency of feed conversion, carcass quality and physical soundness.
The breeding program that founded the breed was conducted at the Canadian Department of Agriculture Research Station at Lacombe, Alberta, and was under the direction of Dr. J. G. Stothart and Dr. H. T. Fredeen. The breed was hence named after the location of the station. The foundation stock was top Berkshire sows obtained in Canada which were mated to Landrace-Chester White crossbred boars secured from the United States Department of Agriculture. Starting in 1947, twelve years of selective breeding and testing included 258 sires and 840 dams - all highly selected for performance. All Lacombes that entered the herd after 1954 were backcrossed with purebred Berkshires and those that produced any pigs with black hair were discarded. This insured genetic purity for the white color, because in swine, the white color is dominant to black. From 1954-57, Lacombes were evaluated in 60 commercial Yorkshire herds in Alberta and proved to have the performance, capabilities and meat qualities that were sought.
Lacombe boars were released to the public in 1957. The first sows were
made available a year later. When released, the breed was estimated to
carry 56 percent Landrace, 23 percent Berkshire and 21 percent Chester
White blood. Lacombes were accepted for registration by the Canadian
National Livestock Records in 1957, and in 1959, the Canadian Lacombe
Breeders' Association was incorporated under the Livestock Pedigree Act.
The Lacombe has been found very useful in central Canada, the area for which it was especially developed. Both boars and sows have earned a valued reputation for high fertility. The provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta have especially accepted the breed where it is used straight or the boars used in crossbreeding programs. The crossbred sows have been found to be excellent in performance. Selection in the breed has been especially effective in producing sows reputed to be the most docile of the breeds in Canada. Sows stand confinement well and produce pigs that not only stand confinement but gain rapidly and efficiently with valued carcass characteristics.
The Lacombe has been tested widely in Test Stations of Canada and has proven to be the fastest gaining of the breeds tested in feed efficiency and other measured performance characteristics, they showed up well and only slightly behind the highest in the various categories studied. A Lacombe boar was the highest indexing sire tested in 1981. The breed has not only spread throughout Canada, but has also been exported to the United States, Japan, U.S.S.R., Mexico, Puerto Rico, Italy, Great Britain, West Germany and other countries. It is an excellent example of what can be accomplished by careful scientific breeding, rigid selection, and close attention to the details that makes a breed outstanding for production traits, carcass quality and profitability. This new breed, that was synthesized from three existing breeds that each carried certain desired characteristics, seems to be living up to the rigid requirements it was developed to meet. The number of independent breeders has been relatively small, but they have probably used production testing and performance records more effectively than the breeders of any swine in the world unless under direct and rigid government control. This care and attention to important details has resulted in continued improvement of the breed. Canada has long been known for the quality of pork produced. Their quality standards have been maintained at a sufficient level to meet exacting market standards while performance in the economic production traits have also been improved.
Pork producers across Canada may not know exactly where Lacombe, Alberta is located, but they know its importance to their industry. The Lacombe swine, developed at the Canadian Department of Agriculture Research Station in the 1950s by Dr. J. G. (Jack) Stothart and Dr. Howard Fredeen, became one of the most popular breeds in Canada. It is still being raised at farms across Canada and has also been exported to the United States, Japan, Russia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Italy, Great Britain and Germany, among others.
Stothart and Fredeen applied selective breeding and testing to develop the Lacombe swine. They were seeking to develop a white, productive breed, which could be cross-bred with the Yorkshire (the dominant swine breed in Canada) to bear vigorous offspring with good carcass characteristics.
Their “foundation breeds” for the development of this new swine breed were Chester White, Danish-Landrace, and Berkshire. Each of these breeds had desirable characteristics; Berkshire sows had high milk production and their offspring produced good quality ham, while Danish-Landrace and Chester White had the preferred white color and were noted for good bacon production.
Subsequent generations of offspring were assessed against rigorous criteria; “a variety of economically important traits, including the number of pigs per litter and their weight at weaning and at 6 months; 14 well-developed, uniformly-spaced teats; vigor; physical soundness; strength of feet and legs; freedom from defective conditions; and carcass merit, growth rate, and feed requirements in accordance with Canadian ROP (Record of Performance) testing policy,” an Agriculture Canada article notes.
These criteria helped select a rather small population with the desired characteristics; only six per cent of males and 24 per cent of females weaned were used in further breeding.
At the same time the selective breeding of the Lacombe hogs was underway, control litters of Yorkshire swine were being bred at research stations in Saskatchewan. Between 1954 and 1956, the Lacombe-bred swine were compared with the Saskatchewan-bred Yorkshires and judged superior based on litter size, average weight and growth rate to 90 kilograms.
The results prompted the project advisory committee to recommend releasing the breed for widespread production, and the Lacombe breed was officially registered in 1957. The first public exhibition of the Lacombe breed was made at the National Swine Show held in Brandon on 1 July 1957.
A national draw was organized for the first 50 Lacombe boars to be released, drawing more than 800 applicants. The draw, held on 7 October 1957, distributed the boars to breeders from British Columbia to Ontario. By 1960, 462 breeding females were distributed across Canada, and the Lacombe breed had become established as a top-rank swine.